The musculoskeletal system is composed of bones, joints, muscles, ligaments, and tendons. Among these bones are the major parts of this locomotor system. This provides us stability, firmness, and ability to move. The function of these bones gets hampered due to fractures and dislocations. A fracture is defined as a dis-union of bones or breakage in the alignment of the bone. According to Ayurveda, the fracture is considered as “BHAGNA”. It is an Asthivaha srotas vyadhi. A major reason for disunion is – ‘INJURY’. External factors are responsible for these injuries.
Cause For Fracture
(Reference – Sushruta samhita / Purav ardha / Nidana sthana / Bhagna nidana / Chapter no. 15 / Shloka no. 3)
The meaning of this shloka – Patna (falling from height), pidana (compressing the bones), prahara (attack by humans or animals). These are the external factors that may lead to bone injury. Here, Injury is defined as an external factor which will harm the body and may result in fractures. Like – falling from height, direct hit or blow over bone, RTA (Road traffic accidents) are the major cause of injuries.
- Infections – Infection of bones makes them brittle and fragile.
- Disease – History like osteoporosis, psoriasis, low bone mineral density condition, etc.
1. Weak Bones
Are the reason for breakage of bones.
- Old age is the most prone phase for fractures.
- Children – “अपरिपक्वा अवस्था” this is a phase in which bones are fragile and complete ossification of bones doesn’t take place till this age.
Types Of Fractures
- Open Fracture – A fracture that communicates with the external environment (through the wound). It means bones, muscles, connective tissues and blood vessels are involved or superficial fascia and deep fascia is exposed.
- Closed Fracture – Here bones will not expose outside the body in the external environment.
- Complete Fracture – A fracture in which complete cortex is involved.
- Incomplete Fracture – Complete cortex is not involved in this type of fracture.
Some Other Types are
- Greenstick Fracture – These fractures are common in children. As discussed earlier, their bones are fragile.
- Pathological Fractures – Due to any disease if bones become weak or get affected, they result in a fracture. Pathological fractures are those which occurs due to any disease.
- Stress Fractures – Unable to cope up with the force that has been applied over the bone repeatedly, results in a fracture that is called Stress fractures. Common in sports.
- Hairline Fractures – A force which is not sufficient to break the bone in fragments but produces a hairline trauma. This type of fracture is called hairline fractures.
Symptoms Occur During Fracture
(Reference – Sushruta samhita / Purav ardha / Nidana sthana / Bhagna nidana / Chapter no. 15 / Shloka no. 9)
Meaning – The symptoms of Kanda bhagna (Fractures) are
- Shwayathu Bahulya (Inflammation) – Severe swelling will be present locally, at the site of fracture due to injured underlying connective tissues.
- Sparsha Ashiushnata (Tenderness) – Pain on touch, these pains may be local or may radiate throughout the course that pertains to the fractured bone.
- Pidyamane Shabden – Cracking sound on pressing.
- Vividha Vedna – Various types of pains a person may feel, these pains may be local or may radiate throughout the course that pertains to the fractured bone.
- Sarvasvathusu na Sharmlabha – Person doesn’t feel good in any position.
Some Other Symptoms are
- Stiffness – Rigidity occurs due to reduced blood flow.
- Hemorrhage or hematoma or bruising – Bleeding occurs due to the involvement of underlying blood vessels.
- Reduced ROM – Range of movement of the particular part will restrict or reduce due to stiffness.
- Deformity – Physical deformity is observed.
- Numbness or tingling sensation – It is due to the involvement of underlying nerves.
- Complete rest and maintain the anatomical position.
- Bandage or splints are required to attain stability of the fractured bone.
- Healthy diet
- Asthishrinkhala (Cissus quadrangularis) – It is also called as ‘Hadjod’. Name of the medicine itself suggests that the action is purely on Asthi dhatu. This plant is a rich source of calcium. It helps to pacify Vata dosha in our body and helps to unite bone.
- Shighru (Moringa oleifera) – Drumsticks are effective in all kinds of bone problems.
- Laksha (Laccifer lacca) – Laksha is well-known for its sandhan karma (uniting property). So, we can utilize it in fractures.
- Shallaki (Boswellia serrata) – An effective herb in strengthening bones and joints. Shallaki helps in the production of osteocytes.
- Guggulu (Commiphora mukul) – Guggulu is widely used in the treatment of joint disorders. It is very effective in healing fractures, stimulates wound healing.
- Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) and Shatavari (Asparagus racemosus) – Both helps to rejuvenate the damaged tissues.
- Haridra (Curcuma longa) and Giloy (Tinospora cordifolia) – They have anti–microbial properties that help to manage the infections.
- Shunthi (Zingiber officinale) and Nirgundi (Vitex negundo) – Both have anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Thus, helps in reducing joint swelling and pains. Basically, it helps to reduce Kapha dosha in our body.
- Punarnava (Boerhavia diffusa) is also an anti–inflammatory herb hence beneficial.
- A great natural source of calcium and vitamin D is prawal (Coral), mukta (Pearl), shankha (Counch shell), kukutanda twak (Egg’s outer shell) etc that aids fracture healing.
For external application – Oil massage and paste of above-said herbs are beneficial in reducing swelling and pains.
Rehabilitation is the major part of treatment – as after 21- 45 days of plaster the affected part becomes stiffed and unable to regain its normal function due to its rigidity. To overcome that, certain physical exercises are advised to the patient. Initially starts with the fine or light exercises as per the advice of the experts that helps to improve the ROM (range of movement).
- Exercise Daily – but you should choose exercises according to your capability.
- Give sufficient rest to the fractured part.
- Avoid salty, sour, alkaline and dry foodstuff.
- A healthy diet is most important so intake of calcium, magnesium and vitamin-rich diet is helpful. Try to add dairy products in your diet.